Indications for Use
Complications from bronchoscopy are rare and most often minor, but if they occur, may include breathing difficulty, vocal cord spasm, hoarseness, slight fever, vomiting, dizziness, bronchial spasm, infection, low blood oxygen, bleeding from biopsied site, or an allergic reaction to medications. Only rarely do patients experience other more serious complications (for example, collapsed lung, respiratory failure, heart attack and/or cardiac arrhythmia).
Adverse effects from both Mini-PCNL and Ureteroscopy include pain, urinary tract infection, fever, hematuria (presence of blood in urine), exposure to low levels of radiation, retained or residual stones.
Adverse effects from ureteroscopy may include pain, perforation or injury to the ureter, resulting in extravasation of fluid and urine (urinoma), stricture of the ureter with risk of subsequent obstruction (hydronephrosis needing further repair), rare avulsion of the ureter, urinary blood clots, residual stones.
PCNL access may result in minor and major adverse effects. Minor effects include fever and nephrostomy leak. Major adverse effects may include injuries to pleura, liver, spleen, large vessels with related bleeding, gallbladder, duodenum, jejunum, colon with related cutaneous fistula, fever, pain, ileus, elevated counts.
Major adverse effects related to stone removal may include infection and urosepsis, intravascular fluid overload, extravasation of fluid, and post percutaneous nephrolithotomy bleeding.